Musical Leo Does More than Roar!

Musical Leo Centers Around the Key of F major-D minor

Musical Leo Centers Around the Key of F major-D minor. Here are some typical issues that music written in the key of one flat can help cure. This is because Leo rules over the core of the body.

  • Do you feel that you are too timid or shy? Or, is your subdued personality preventing you from a promotion on your job?
  • On the physical side: Do you have poor posture or pains in your back or spine? Are you fearful of possible heart problems?

Here’s the good news: What if you could alleviate any of these problems by relaxing in an arm chair (like Henry VIII below) and  just listening to music. Better yet, do all this free of charge!

Musical Leo
How can music make you feel like a king?

 MUSICAL LEO AS THERAPY

The zodiac has been called the wheel of life and circle of little animals. The English word zodiac derives from zōdiacus. It is  Latinized form of the Ancient Greek zōidiakòs kýklos (ζῳδιακός κύκλος). This word “cycle or circle of little animals”. Zōidion (ζῴδιον) is the diminutive of zōion (ζῷον, “animal”). The name reflects the prominence of animals (and mythological hybrids) among the twelve signs.The key of Leo has one flat. You can see this on the diagram of the Circle of Fifths. One flat is connected to F major and D minor.

Circle of Fifths fits like a glove over the 12 zodiac signs. The key of Leo is set at 11:00 o’clock.

So What Can Music in the Key of Musical Leo do for You?

Mental Health– It develops self assurance. You can become the life of any party and gives you the aura of a great entertainer. Music in this key encourages generosity and a kind, open heart. Its sound allows you to be able to take action whenever needed.

Physical Health- Leo rules the back, spine and heart. They are at the body’s core. Anyone with back pain, posture issues or heart problems would do well to listen to the vibes of music in the key of Leo. To get more background on this issue check out the  internal link below. Classical music is best because it is often identified by key signature. Look on youtube for free examples: Symphony in F or D minor, quartet, sonata, trio etc. Even if you feel no benefit from this advice, at least you will have listened to some great music!

Panacea is Found in Our Civilization’s Music

 

panacea

Panacea is Found in Our Civilization’s Music

Panacea is Found in Our Civilization’s Music. Originally I posted this on our other website: Reviving Antiquity@aol.com, however, I feel it is common to both of these sites. Certainly, in the past many composers of music borrowed from themselves. For example, in music, the BACH motif is a motif.   Its notes are a succession of notes important or characteristic to a piece.  These notes are B flat, A, C, B natural. In German musical nomenclature the note B natural is named H and the B flat named B. It forms Johann Sebastian Bach‘s family name.

So, Here is My Panacea Quote from Reviving Antiquity

Many composers quoted themselves in different works. This is especially true for J.S, Bach. These notes sound his name in music.

Panacea – what is its meaning? In Greek mythology,  she (Greek ΠανάκειαPanakeia) was a goddess of universal remedy. This remarkable entity was the daughter of Asclepius and Epione.  With her sisters each performed a facet of Apollo‘s art:[1]

  • Panacea (the goddess of universal health).
  • Hygieia (“Hygiene”, the goddess/personification of health, cleanliness, and sanitation).
  • Iaso (the goddess of recuperation from illness)
  • Aceso (the goddess of the healing process).
  • Aglæa/Ægle (the goddess of beauty, splendor, glory, magnificence, and adornment).
  • Panacea.jpg
    Our featured goddess helping the sick. The Veronese physician J. Gazola created this picture as part of a larger woodcut in 1716.
    Our musical circle of fifths is as good as the Greek goddesses for curing ailments.

    It’s time to cure the ills of mankind. Music, when properly applied, can do just that. Best of all, it’s free. Also the knowledge I write about has the capacity improve the interpretation of music by a searching musician. That analysis is for the future. First notice there are 12 basic key signatures. The bottom three are called “enharmonic.”

  •  C# major is merely another letter name for Db major.
  • F# major is another name for Gb major
  • Cb is another name for B major.

This means there are basically 12 key signatures. I have my reasons for aligning the 12 key signatures with the 12 zodiac signs. Many have done this before me, but I feel my way is most correct. My reasons will be explained over time.

Effecting Panacea

Let’s discuss heart problems. To cure these problems listen to classical music in the key of one flat. That, as you can see from the diagram, is F major and its relative minor of D. Why classical?  Quite often, classical music is defined by its  key signature. i.e. : Symphony in F major, Quartet in D minor, Trio in D minor,  etc. The minor key alleviates the sordid condition. The major maintains good health in the area needed. More will be forthcoming. Keep checking.

 

 

 

poetry signals change

Poetry signals Change is About to Happen

Poetry signals Change is in the Air. Said another way: When there is no poetry of quality then musical quality takes a nose dive. This is not only my own observation. As my resource I quote  Music by Frederic V. Grunfeld. The book I read it in is published by Newsweek Books out of New York. Place and year- Mondadaori, Verona, Italy,  1974.

Poetry Signals Change – Poetry (magazine) Cover Copy Below

Poetry (founded as Poetry: A Magazine of Verse) has been published in Chicago since 1912. It is one of the leading monthly poetry journals in the English.  Poetry is founded by Harriet Monroe and now published by the Poetry Foundation. It is currently edited by Don Share

Those who decry the primitivism of today’s music along with its limited scope, need to look for another Heinrich Heine type figure. Indeed, so many “songs” use about three or four repeated notes or thrive on platitudes and vulgarity. I have already mentioned him on DSOworks in the internal link below. The problem is where is our Henrich Heine for this present day and age?

Poetic Import in Signaling Historic Changes

We Must Return to Beautiful Poetry

As a writer of poetry, I am inspired by the same place at which the Marvelous Mrs. Maisel was filmed for this coming season: Scott’s Oquaga Lake House on Oquaga Lake. The beauty and enchantment of the lake knows no limits.

Here is an excerpt from my poem called “Fun.” It describes this setting in some detail.

The diving platform is located
End the end of the extended dock.
Canoes and kayaks are nearby
The woods where the birds do flock.

The swimming area is marked
By yellow balls on rope
Fastened to a rubber raft
Beyond which the lake has slope.

A second dock is to the left
With a speedboat at its end.
On its left we find a showboat
Built just for voices to blend.

A playhouse is to the rear
Grand piano is set on stage
Near bowling ping-pong and pool
Games all quite the rage!

Do yourself a favor and make a pilgrimage to Oquaga Lake and visit Scott’s Hotel. A number of doctors from India did just that! All this beauty and memorabilia can be yours to enjoy.  Revive that ancient poetic feeling so many once had. And please share this post!

Here is a fun external link to our other website, Reviving Antiquity.com. Four Flatted Scorpio Refers to Key Signature

 

 

piano competitions

Piano Competitions Have Judges on Edge

Piano Competitions Have Judges on Edge. My source is an excellent book on piano playing. David Dubal wrote it: “Reflections from the Keyboard”. He interviews numerous keyboard artists about their trials and tribulations. Being a judge at competitions is also certainly trying. Why?  I felt that pianist Jorge Bolet was particularly relevant in this regard.

 

Image result for pictures of record jacket by pianist Pierre Bolet
A great master at the piano.

Bolet emphasizes how perfection is expected with piano playing. This is primarily due to the recording industry. He believes this has destroyed  a great deal of “music making.”  That is because recordings are of such mechanical perfection that any imperfection in actual performance is severely frowned upon. The other source of homogeneous playing is competitions.

Bolet on Piano Competitions

This piano legend actually states “Competitions have done more harm to piano playing than anything else.” In many competitions there are some 15 judge. Those he enter have to try to get all the votes. To do this they must not antagonize any of the judges in any way. Nothing must be different or worse yet, controversial. Any personal idea is shunned and looked down upon. Bolet states that as a result whether you listen to 10, 20 or 30 pianists, they all play alike. That affects the status of piano playing in general. No one becomes outstanding.

My Own Piano Instructor- Mischa Kottler

My own teacher was Mischa Kottler. He was the official pianist with the Detroit Symphony Orchestra. Mischa also directed the music at WJR in Detroit. His waiting list for students was incredibly long. Once you got to start, he often went with the Symphony on tour. I grew up in Detroit. Listen to him playing Chopin’s Minute Waltz. He actually plays the difficult passages with double notes in the right hand. The main help I credit with is avoiding hand injuries at the piano. He taught:  (1) Hand positions, (2) The proper way to scales and arpeggios.  (3) Showed me the regimen that I still practice daily. (4) How to play with a singing tone. (5) How to: “Present the melody on a silver platter.” (6) Above all else: He was a fanatic about proper fingering. Mischa never seemed satisfied with  editors. He learned his art and fingering from Alfred Cortot and Emil von Sauer in Paris in Vienna in the 1920’s. Would he have lost at a piano competition for his originality? Perhaps?

So What Am I doing Now?

I’ve never been so busy. I’ve just return from New York where my wife and I workshopped our original opera, Patra. All our singers had won auditions with the NY Met Opera. Check out our Patra website, Patraopera.com. Professionally I play 52 weeks a year. I’m scheduled to play my 11th winter season in Boca Grande at the Gasparilla Inn.  The owners have just reconditioned their Steinway Grand from 1924. You be the judge: Are piano competitions necessary? Perhaps.

 

Even in his 80’s and 90’s his abilities were stellar.

3:47

Ten minute Musical Bliss

Ten Minute Musical Bliss of Rubinoff and His Violin

Ten Minute Musical Bliss of Rubinoff and His Violin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QUz-LOrzTQU. Like fine wine, musicians and artists improve with age. Dave Rubinoff is much too ignored today. That is due to the jealousy of the 100% pure classical musicians. Indeed, I even wonder how many pure symphonic musicians are left to be found today. It seems like so many are crossing the lines into the popular field.

Even as of recently, Dave Rubinoff refuses to give up the ghost. This is true even some 35 years after he passed away. Maestro, conductor, and curator Joseph Rubin (not related to Rubinoff except in spirit) gave a concert commemorating this great artist last summer. I was called to appear with violinist extraordinaire, Steven Greenman. It was  held at the  Circleville High School near Colombus, Ohio. Maestro Greenman had just returned from a tour of Poland. Among other places, he played the most haunting melodies in the synagogue in Cracow. Below was the itinerary Maestro Rubin sent me for the Circleville. Ohio concert.

Ten minute musical bliss
During the Great Depression, Rubinoff and His Violin had stellar income- as much as $500,000.00 a year during some years. This would be like millions today. For the Ten Minute Musical Bliss, go to the youtube connection given above. If you’ve ever heard a violinist/conductor with such precision, speed and musicality with movie star quality, let me know.

Witness Another Ten Minute Musical Bliss with Steven Greenman and I playing the Rubinoff’s Fiddler

Friday, June 1 (2017)
Around 3 PM – Rehearse Fiddler Medley with Steven Greenman, location TBA
7-9:30 PM – Orchestra Rehearsal at Circleville High School
Saturday, June 2
11 am – Rehearse Fiddler Medley with Steven Greenman
2-4:30 pm- Orchestra Rehearsal at Circleville High School
6:30 PM – Pre-show lecture at High School
7-9 PM Concert at High School
9-10:30 PM Post show VIP reception at High School
Copy and paste the youtube link above to see what success is obtainable by playing incredibly well what the general public enjoys. I was thrilled to work so many years with this man.
resort number 1

Resort number 1 Seems Like #2 Home with my 11th year

Resort number 1 seems to be my 2nd Home. My 1st home graces in sunny Sarasota.My profession as a pianist takes me to Boca Grande. There, I play at the Gaparilla Inn.  The Inn captures the charm of a bygone era of Florida hospitality. It again claims its throne this year as resort #1.  The Inn’s style is stately and grand. It offers glamour that recalls the heyday of mid-century Floridian beach resorts.  A slower pace of life is offered.  “It’s Old Florida at its best with modern updates.” Activities abound at the resort. Sport offerings include golf, tennis, croquet, boating, and other misc. water sports . You’ll want to have in your list of memories its Beach Club views of the Gulf of Mexico. More information: the-gasparilla-inn.com

Resort number 1 has Interesting Guests

resort number 1
Some of the celebrities who have frequented the Inn

 

Pianist David Ohrenstein will play for diners on the isle of Boca grande

David is scheduled 6 nights weekly in season on this island resort. On a typical night you can hear music by Cole Porter, George Gershwin. You’ll authentic ragtime by Scott Joplin. The Inn was actually built at the height of the ragtime era. He also loves the great classics. His  regular list this time of the year is  a 30 minute rendition of principle dances from the  Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky. He plays Jupiter from the Planets by Gustav Holst. He loves to play the theme from the King’s Speech. It is the slow movement of Beethoven’s 7th Symphony.  Excerpts from principle operas are often included. His favorite popular song to play is “Killing Me Softly.” The arrangement he has by George Shearing is so beautiful that many diners have to wipe tears from their eyes.

Be sure to also catch David and his wife, Sharon, as they workshop their new opera comique, Patra September 1 -7 on Schroon Lake in New York.

PATRA – Opera Comique by Sharon and David Ohrenstein. Join the Fun!

Image result for Link for patraopera
Patraopera.com is the site that features our new opera comique. Our Sarasota cast  just completed a concert presentation in Sarasota at the West Coast Black Theater. In New York we will also feature top young singers in the U.S.A. and Europe.

 

 

 

contrapuntal universe

Contrapuntal Universe Combines Melody with Conterpoint

Contrapuntal Universe is a Paradox. First, what is musical counterpoint? In musiccounterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony).  Yet they are  independent in rhythm and contour.[1] It has been most commonly identified in the European classical tradition.  Counterpoint was strongly developing during the Renaissance. It became common practice period  in the Baroque. The term originates from the Latin punctus contra punctum. That means “point against point”.

Melodic Universe V. Contrapuntal Universe

Counterpoint focuses on melodic interaction—only secondarily on the harmonies produced by that interaction.  John Rahn contrasts melody with counterpoint quite adeptly. He states:

It is hard to write a beautiful song. It is harder to write several individually beautiful songs that, when sung together, sound more beautiful as a polyphonic whole. The internal structures that create each must contribute to the the polyphony. Vice versa, the combination in turn must comment on the the individual voices. In this way the contrapuntal universe combines the singular with the plural. The way that is accomplished in detail is … ‘counterpoint’.[3]

contrapuntal universe
This is the 1st volume of the Bible of counterpoint.

 

Patra Workshop
Three female musicians. Used by permission from the Egyptian art gallery: “From Cairo with Love”and artist, Kadir.

Patra Workshop to debut New York this September

Patra Workshop to debut in New York. Patra is the shorter name for Cleopatra. Queen of Egypt, she was one of the most famous women in history. Her full name was Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator (69 BC – 12 August 30 BC). She was the last of the Pharaohs set up in Egypt by Alexander the Great. By descent, she was a Macedonian Princess. It will appear off book in  the workshop. Our singers will literally be top notch.  My wife, Sharon is the librettist and a co-composer of Patra.  I, husband David, am also a composer. Before going to NY, it will have a staged concert presentation. This will be in Sarasota Fl at the newly built Sarasota West Coast Black Theater.  Our casts in both NY and Fla are busy rehearsing.  Here’s the gist:

Cleopatra had stopped the onslaught of two invading Roman generals through love. She thus neutralized the worst effects of their invasions by marrying the generals. Patra had children with each.  The generals were, first,  Julius Caesar; and then, Marc Antony. Was there any possibility of love with the 3rd invading general, Octavian? That is the subject of our new opera comique.

`How does this tie together melody and counterpoint?  By the beautiful vocal lines. Also, the piano provides additional counterpoint. Don’t miss our New York workshop on September 7, 2019.  See our website, Patraopera.com. for details.

 

Patra Workshop

Patra Workshop to debut New York this September

Patra Workshop to debut in New York. Patra is the shorter name for Cleopatra. Queen of Egypt, she was one of the most famous women in history. Her full name was Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator (69 BC – 12 August 30 BC). She was the last of the Pharaohs set up in Egypt by Alexander the Great. By descent, she was a Macedonian Princess. It will appear off book in  the workshop. Our singers will literally be top notch.  My wife, Sharon is the librettist and a co-composer of Patra. . I, husband David, am also a composer. Before going to NY, it will have a staged concert presentation. This will be in  Sarasota Fl at the newly built Sarasota Westcoast Black Theater.  Our casts in both NY and Fla are busy rehearsing.  Here’s the gist:

Cleopatra had stopped the onslaught of two invading Roman generals through love. She thus neutralized the worst effects of their invasions by marrying the generals. Patra had children with each.  They were, first,  Julius Caesar and later Marc Antony.

Image result for patraopera,com

Patra Workshop

Enter Octavian, a third Roman invader. She almost stops his aggression through love. In order to save her children, she follows the way of the warrior: An honorable death. If she she married Octavian and moved to Rome, both her and her children would have been seen as a threat to the Roman triumvirate.  Our opera features Patra and Octavian’s encounter. In the opera she convinces him to become Augustus Caesar- 1st emperor of Rome   Later, as a result, he honors her by placing  a statue of her in the Temple of Venus in Rome. The statue was displayed exemplifying her as the good mother.

Patra has memorable melodies, Latin rhythms and most important – a gripping story. Sample our music on Patraopera.com.

PATRA News!!!
See PATRA in Sarasota before it goes to New York !!
Presented in Sarasota for One Night Only
Before heading to New York in September, our new opera PATRA will be presented as a concert reading in Sarasota. The complete opera will be presented on Fri. July 19 at the new Westcoast Black Theatre at 6:30 pm.

The New York Workshop

PATRA has been selected for a fully-staged professional workshop in upstate New York at the Seagle Music Colony in Schroon Lake. The American Center for New Works Development at Seagle has work shopped pieces by many award-winning writers like Stephen Schwartz, Mark Adamo, Kevin Putts and more.
Patraopera.com
This setting on Schroon Lake, NY gave birth to many new works by great theatrical and operatic writers. Also, the chosen singers are engaged by American and European opera companies in this setting.

Patra Workshop – the Story

PATRA is loosely based on Cleopatra’s final days.  When the villainous Octavian dangles a marriage proposal before Cleopatra, she hopes to secure a future for herself and her children. Yet, things do not go as he planned. Cleopatra’s love challenges Octavian and transforms him into a new man.  PATRA has five singing roles. Our great Sarasota cast is listed below.
Writer, co-composer, librettist states: “When I began the eleven month rewrite of our more tragic Octavian & Cleopatra, I wanted to lighten the work and give it a popular bent.  I cut two singing roles and added a dancer.  Then, I infused comedy, lively dance rhythms, a small amount of spoken dialogue and a surprise at every turn.  Most of all, I showcased the singer.  I did something rather unusual in any musical or opera I created numerous dramatic moments where the instrumental accompaniment is silent. Only singing voices are heard.”
 PATRA  is an opera comique:  It uses techniques from  Bizet’s Carmen and  Bernstein’s  The West Side Story. .

Patra Concert Presentation

The WBTT concert has a $20 suggested donation ticket price to be paid at the door.  For an advance reserved seat visit GoFundMe.com/PatraOpera, make a donation and in the notes write WBTT ticket.  Westcoast Black Theatre is located at 1012 N Orange Ave, Sarasota, FL 34236.
CONTACT: Sharon Ohrenstein at 941-724-1199 or slohrenstein@gmail.com. only about the above events.  THANK YOU!
Image result for patraopera.com
Our masthead for the opera used with permission of the art gallery: From Cairo with Love. located, in Cairo Egypt and its creator,  Kadir.
PATRA
Libretto by Sharon Ohrenstein
Music by David Ohrenstein and Sharon Ohrenstein
Our terrific Sarasota CAST
Kathryn Parks as Cleopatra, Joseph Ryan as Octavian, Carole Cornman as Iras, Robyn Rocklein as Charmian, and Baron Garriott as Marcellus.  Pianist Teresa O’Connell will accompany the shows.
Dancer Vanessa Russo, currently based in Sarasota, has been hired for the New York Patra workshop workshop. Only singers will be performing in Sarasota.

Background for the Patra Workshop: About Ohrenstein and Ohrenstein

Musical theater writers and performers, Sharon and David Ohrenstein have performed internationally from Canada to Honduras. Their musicals, Octavian and Cleopatra, Our Golda, and Elizabeth of Russia have been produced in Florida and New York to remarkable reviews.  Sharon was honored to be chosen an Amazing Woman of the Suncoast by ABC 7.  David’s chamber compositions for wind ensembles and larger works for concert band have had world premieres in New York, Ontario, Ohio and Florida. David just finished his tenth season at the Gasparilla Inn where he plays for U.S. presidents and other dignitaries. For more information visit Patraopera.com. Here is an internal link to a ballet I, David,  wrote: Zodiac Dance Demonstrates Extremes from Ballet to Modern

View All Events

Romantic Composer Comradery

Romantic Composer Comrades were Common

Romantic Composer Comrades were Common. Musical composers are the avant-guard of civilization.  Avant-guard defines a group of artists, musicians, or writers working with new and experimental ideas and methods. Without composer comrades, it is doubtful that we would ever know who Franz Schubert was. Composers are vital to a civilization. Yet, they are like babies. They need help. Such was the case with Franz Schubert. He only lived to age 31.  Franz Peter Schubert  was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras. Despite his short lifetime, Schubert left behind  more than 600 secular vocal works (mainly Lieder), seven complete symphoniessacred musicoperasincidental music and a large body of piano and chamber music.

Obviously, the painter was a great friend and admirer of Franz Schubert.

Oil painting of Franz Schubert by Wilhelm August Rieder (1875), made from his own 1825 watercolor portrait.

signature written in ink in a flowing script
His last symphony, “The Great,” was never performed in his lifetime. He received payment for it from the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in 1828. However, they ended up performing an easier symphony by Schubert, , No 6. The “Great” remained in the truck of his brother, Ferdinand Schubert. His Romantic composer comrades included Robert Schumann. Scumann went searching for it. He discovered it in Ferdinand’s trunk in his attic.
Fortunately, Felix Mendelssohn, counted among Schubert’s Romantic composer comrades,  was in a position to make the “Great” come to life. He was the director of the Gewandhaus Concerts in Leipzig, Germany. The story goes it was difficult to perform even for his orchestra. To make it more palatable, Mendelssohn omitted the repeats in the symphony that were indicated by Schubert. Here is another story of Schubert’s almost lost and forgotten music:

THE CLIFF HANGER QUEST OF GILBERT AND SULLIVAN to save Schubert’s Music

Gilbert and Sullivan had heard of Schubert’s Rosamunde. The manuscript was not to be found.  On a whim, they traveled to Germany to find the music. There, they caught wind of a Doctor Snyder who may have been in possession of the score. The rest of the story reads like a cliff hanger. When they arrived at his home, Dr. Snyder told them he had had a number of Schubert’s  manuscripts in his attic. Unfortunately, he had already placed them in the trash bin. The operetta duo ran to the refuse container. There, they not only discovered the score to Rosamunde, but numerous other symphonic works by Schubert. The rest of the story goes, they were so excited at the find, that they played leap frog with each other to celebrate the find.

This team did so much for our culture
Gilbert and Sullivan saved another work of Schubert’s.

Without the arts, life seems shorter and  even brutish.  We must support  creators of the fine arts who supply the musicians in the concert hall with new music. After all, there might not be a team like Robert Schumann, Felix Mendelssohn or Gilbert and Sullivan  at the right moment to save the great works of another poor Schubert-like composer.

Singer composer concept is returning

Singer Composer Was the Creator of Opera

Singer Composer Was the Creator of Opera. Today, many do not think of singers as the creators of opera. In the early 1700’s they were. The taste in Naples, Italy at that time, dictated how opera was created. That taste was manifested in the love of vocal display. Popular idols were made of singers. Theodore M. Finney writes in a History of Music: The composers became “a kind of formality that had within it the seed of artistic sterility and death.”

Singer composer phenomenon sent many composer fleeing.
The new singer composer phenomenon  caused composer Alessandro Scarlatti to leave Naples in 1725.

 

What Happened to Opera as a Result of the Singer Composer Phenomenon?

Many composers at that time would write scores of historical interest. However, they had little if any musical interest. Opera composers turned from opera to writing for other mediums, such as instrumental. Society in Italy mainly fawned over virtuosity in musical drama. This gave rise to the Golden Age of Bel Canto. Francesco Bernardi, for example,  loaded his adagios with countless ornaments. Opera singers became heroes. Hogarth immortalizes a singer in one of his arias in The Rakes Progress: He receives the adulation of a lady who says: “One God, one Farinelli.” The composer was reduced to the sideman.

As a matter of fact, the admiration of opera singers of the at time was so tremendous that most were totally unconcerned with the excellence of an opera itself.  For that reason the music of many operas had nothing more than a figured bass and perhaps the outline of a melody. They singer flushed out the rest of the opera. The singer was also the primary composer. Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of musical notation in which numerals and symbols (often accidentals) are used. They indicate intervalschords, and non-chord tones that a musician is to play.  Historically this was most often applied to   pianoharpsichordorgan, and  lute. 

Example of writing style with figured bass.

Melody from the opening of Henry Purcell‘s “Thy Hand, Belinda”, Dido and Aeneas (1689) with figured bass below (About this soundPlay