Ancient area was also made from Fibonacci numbers

Ancient Area Unit Numbers are Revealing

Ancient Area Unit Numbers are Revealing. Below are units of length. These numbers were then used in squared form by ancient builders. The second internal link shows my source of the measures.  Area measure was used in other ways in past ages. Knowledge of this still survives if you look hard enough.  First, notice below, by mathematics English yard of 3 feet should actually be 2.979… feet. Squaring this slightly smaller figure given below equals 8.88 square feet.  Thus, two of the area unit numbers use repeated numbers. They are:

(1) Palestinian cubit square of 4.44 square feet.

(2) The mathematically true (not rounded up)  figure for the English square yard as 8.88 square feet.

ancient area unit choices varied by a set formula discovered by Jay Hambidge
Ancient area map

Repeated numbers have made their way into our culture in other ways.  Witness the popularity of “888 product sales in business.”  As a matter of fact all of the 9 basic digits are repeated  for selling. Repeated numbers make reference to  the 3 x 3 number square.  It contains an infinity of hidden number codes based on repeated numbers. Scope out “infinity” on DSOworks.com

Also notable: The Commandments of the Hebrew Torah are also numbered by ancient measures: There are 248 positively stated commandments. The 365 negatively stated ones tell you what not to do.  The internal link immediately below explains the +5 discrepancy for the 243 numbers that define the Roman pace and the positive commandments.

Mitzvot (as good deeds) are 248 to Do; and 365 Not to Do – DSO Works

 

Canon of measures Archives – DSO Works

Basic Units of Ancient Measure

1.2165… feet = 1 remen
1.2165 feet x √2 = 1.72… feet – one royal cubit
1.2165 feet x √3 = 2.107… feet- one Palestinian cubit
1.2165 feet x  √4 = 2.43… feet – one Roman pace
1.2165 feet x  √5 = 2.72… feet – one megalithic yard etc., up to…(copied from internal link above).

1.2165 feet x √6  = 2.979…feet – It was rounded up to 3 feet.
1.2165 feet x √8 = 3.44 square feet

1.2165 feet x √9 = 3.65… feet

Ancient Area Unit Numbers Expressed in Square Feet

One remen squared = 1.48 square feet.
One royal cubit squared = 3 square feet.
One Palestinian cubit squared = 4.44 square feet
One Roman pace squared = 6 square feet.
One megalithic yard squared = 7.4 square feet.
The 1.2165…foot remen x square root of six  (as 1.2165 feet x √6)  = 2.979…feet)  2.979… ² =8.88 square feet. Of course the British yard is rounded up to a full three feet. When that is done, it makes the square yard equal to 9 square feet.

Image result for wikipedia picture of a yardstick
Yardstick based on the full 3 foot long British yard.

Repeated numbers also found their way into gematria. That’s the ancient equation of numbers and letters.  Damascus, when spelled with Hebrew letters equals 444. (Link is below) Dalet (right to left) is 4, (mem) is 40, shin is 300, kuf is 100 = 444.  In this manner, Damascus makes direct reference to the Palestinian square cubit of 4.44 feet. It is well known that “Jesus” spelled with Greek letters equates with 888 by gematria. That makes reference to the shorter “English” square yard  as 8.88 square feet.

Strong’s Hebrew: 1833. דְּמֶ֫שֶׁק (demesheq) — perhaps silk

biblehub.com/hebrew/1833.htm

 

Violin cases created a sensation

Violin Cases Create a Sensation for Rubinoff

Violin cases created a sensation for Rubinoff. I (blogger David) will be giving a lecture and concert about a composer/conductor/violinist and Hollywood Movie star I worked with. The date is June 2, 2018. It will be at the High School in Circleville ,Ohio. His stage name was Rubinoff and His Violin. He had a talent for being sensational. Even with violin cases.  He made a fortune conducting and playing violin: As much as $500,000.00 annually. Wealth came to him at the peak of the Great Depression. So what made him rich? Two internal links are below will explain his rise to fame. The 1st is about the upcoming Circleville, Ohio festivities that will honor him.  Click on the 2nd for a youtube sample of Rubinoff of how Rubinoff dazzled Hollywood.  His violin wizardry speaks for itself.

Image result for pictures of Rubinoff on DSOworks.comA poor Russian as a youth, he acquired riches and fame through mastery of the  violin.

Commemoration Concert for Rubinoff and His Violin – DSO Works

Rubinoff and His Violin Concert – June 2, 2018 – YouTube

(also click on Rubinoff and His Violin youtube, The Music Shop. You will see the official seal of the Russian empire in diamonds and rubies on the crest of the violin. Dave plays “Flight of the Bumblebee.”)

 violin cases can also hide things other than violins.
A street gang thought Rubinoff’s  older violin case was hiding a machine gun- not a Stradivarius! They carefully avoided us.

Story I –  How Violin Cases Saves Us From Harm

We’d go to a deli for lunch. It was a blustery wintry day. Dave was wearing a godfather coat and hat. He was so preoccupied humming a tune, he didn’t even bother buttoning the coat. This particular violin case was in sad shape. Yet, it held a 2 million dollar Stradivarius. I saw a gang of about 12 young men walking toward us. At that time they were about 1½ blocks away. As soon as they noticed the violin case, the entire gang jay walked across the street to avoid us. Most likely, they thought Rubinoff looked like an old hit man that never got hit.

Story II- The 2nd of the Violin Cases Was an Alligator Skin

Until his last year Dave and I played school assemblies for children in the public schools. One was a performance for a chamber orchestra in the Venice, Fl Public Schools. When we made our entrance, everyone was taken by the alligator violin case. Some children could have cared less about the priceless violin. For them, the case said it all. To relive those days in Circleville is priceless. Buy your tickets now!

Repeated Numbers Point to Mystical Paths

Repeated Numbers Point to Mystical Paths. Do you need a miracle? Start looking for the meaning of repeated numbers. A peleh (in ancient Hebrew) is a wonder or a miracle. When the Red Sea parted, God was praised in “awesome in splendour, working peleh [wonder]” (Exodus 15:11). Sometimes, Scripture numbers can give hints or clues.

  • The very scripture number as 15:11,  has a repeated number, one.  Leviticus 22:21 refers to a wonder as a miracle through words. The word for wonder is “peleh”. In Hebrew letters doubled as numbers. They still do. Peleh is spelled פֶֽלֶא׃ Hebrew is right to left. The 1st letter, peh, is also the glyph for 80. The second letter, lamed, equals 30. The last letter, aleph,  is 1.  Thus, 80 + 30 + 1 = 111.
  • Spell out the word for aleph. Aleph is the 1st letter of the alphabet. It is similar to the Greek first letter, alpha.  Aleph uses the same three letters as peleh, only re-arranged. In the word, aleph, is spelled with an aleph, lamed and  peh. Again we see the same total: 1 + 30 + 80 = 111. How does one perform miracles or wonders with these triple numbers? The question becomes:

Are triple numbers meaningless repetitions of a single number? No. They hide a secret code. The code is found in the 3 x 3 traditional number square.

Repeated Numbers Stem from the Number Square of Saturn

Repeated numbers are hidden in the 3 x 3 number square of Saturn
Number squares have a center and a perimeter, as Saturn has a circumference with a center.

 

Numerical Reality Involves Number Square of Saturn – DSO Works

repeated numbers are have by secret codes in this simple square
This number square was thought to invoke the influence of Saturn.

Here’s how meaningful are the triple numbers. One example: 438 + 672 = 1110. There are 7 other examples in this number square. Click on the internal link if you have trouble figuring them out on your own. Here is an example of the triple “one” in our featured words:  aleph and peleh. Not without significance, the Great Pyramid of Egypt is 1110 megalithic yards in its perimeter. Click on the internal link given below.

Measurements at the Great Pyramid – DSO Works

Conclusion: The next time you see a double or triple number in retail sales remember: They also evoke an ancient, lost code. This code can bring wonders and unity back to civilization.

 

Dome philosophy is worth the study

Dome Philosophy as Opposed to Angular Philosophy

Dome Philosophy as Opposed to Angular Philosophy. A dome has curved and fluid lines. One’s environment influences thinking. Therefore, interaction with the dome  makes for fluid, flexible thoughts. For the geodesic dome we are indebted to R.B. Fuller.

Richard Buckminster “Bucky” Fuller (/ˈfʊlər/; July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983)[1] was an American architectsystems theorist, author, designer, and inventor. He published more than 30 books. In them he coined or popularized terms such as “Spaceship Earth“, ephemeralization, and synergetic. He also developed numerous inventions, mainly architectural designs, and popularized the widely known geodesic dome.

Buckminster Fuller would often ask architects, “How much does your building weigh?” They never knew. He believes that every pound should have a defined and necessary function. Fuller’s domes were triangulated. They had maximum strength for minimum weight.

Dome Philosophy as per the Oquaga Spirit

It is no secret that space-time is a curved continuum.  Thus, the shape of the dome is in keeping with curved space.

Dome philosophy sample of triangulation on Fuller's domes
Maximum strength from minimum weight comes from Fuller’s use of triangulation to construct domes.

I wrote a book of poetry while living around Oquaga Lake. I felt the presence of a spirit there. See picture below. Aptly, I named it the “Oquaga Spirit”. I sensed the spirit was a female from the Lennie Lenape. It is a product on DSOworks.com. You can freely sample me reciting some of the poetry on this inner link. If you are interested, you can also purchase the book.

Oquaga Spirit Speaks – Book of Poetry by David … – DSO Works

Dome Philosophy as per the Oquaga Spirit

 

 

 

Dome philosophy is attended to by a spirit on Oquaga Lake.
Beautiful Oquaga Lake, home of the Oquaga Spirit and of lots of fun.

This spirit dictated a poem to me entitled: Like a Ballerina. She used triple meter for almost the entire book. She also talks about how space-time is a curved continuum. This parallels Fuller’s  use of triangles with the dome shape. Orchestral conductors often conduct triple meter in circular fashion. In the poetry book she offers the following admonition and advice. This is excerpted from her poem, “Like a Ballerina”.

“Man likes duple meters.
His triple meters wane.
Return ye to the waltzes of Vienna,
And the vibrant boleros of Spain.

What we have here is the musical wave of both the past and future. As a pianist, I’m sure to play a good share of music in 3/4 time on my jobs.

 

 

Changing Musical Focus inspired by Jeorge Bolet

Changing Musical Focus is About What’s Coming

Changing Musical Focus is About What’s Coming. Musical styles have come in set periods of time. For success, go with the flow. Why? In the sage words of Henry David Thoreau:

” I have yet to hear the first syllable of valuable or even earnest advice from my seniors. They have told me nothing, and probably cannot tell me anything to the purpose.”  Or as he also states in Walden, “Old deeds for old people, and new deeds for new.”

Carve your own path. This is what pianist Jeorge Bolet did. Jorge Bolet (November 15, 1914 – October 16, 1990) was a Cuban-born American virtuoso pianist and teacher. Among his teachers were Leopold Godowsky, and Moriz Rosenthal.  Roenthal was a pupil of Franz Liszt.[1]Bolet was born in Havana.   He studied at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia.

Consider this reference found in David Dubal’s book. It is entitled Reflections from the Keyboard.  In Bolet’s words: “Today’s audiences go to the concert hall, to hear Beethoven, Schubert and Brahms…” Then Bolet goes on to state that  the last generation “went to hear what the pianist had to say about the composer.” Thus, we not only idolized the composer, we did the same for the pianist.

I was fortunate that my own piano teacher, Mischa Kottler belonged to the same vintage.  He studied with Alfred Cortot and Emil von Sauer. The old school of pianists were not only musicians. They were also magicians. They would take you on a  “magic carpet ride” with their piano playing.

Related image
Myself, blogger David, in concert in New York with Rubinoff and His Violin

 

Changing Musical Focus and Back to the Old School

Mischa Kottler- A Visit By the Legendary Piano Instructor – DSO Works

To see what the old school was all about, click on this internal link. Mischa plays Chopin’s Minute Waltz in doubled notes. Everywhere, audiences went wild at this feat. The link also documents and describes his visit at age 92 to our family. Thanks to Mischa. and other great men I worked with, including Rubinoff and His Violin,  my own career as pianist/composer only now starting to reach a pinnacle. Check on events on DSOworks.com.

Minute Waltz (Mischa Kottler Version) – YouTube

Video for mISCHA kOTTLER PLAYS cHOPINS MINUTE WALTZ

In conclusion. Jeorge Bolet comments how today many are not interested in the musician. He states that he had often gone to all Beethoven concerts. Many pianists had been quite dull. Yet the audience applauded wildly. He states:  “In a sense, the audience is applauding for itself being there.” I believe that those days are about to go, bye-bye.

 

Operatic Broadway

Operatic Broadway – Blurring the Lines Has Precedent

Operatic Broadway – Blurring the Lines Has Precedent.  A number of modern musicals cross over into operatic territory. Opera is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work. It  combines text (libretto) and musical score.  Opera usiually has usually in a theatrical setting.[1] Singers do two types of singing: recitative, a speech-inflected style[2] . The second are arias, a more melodic style. Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre, such as actingscenery, and costumes and sometimes includes dance. Traditionally, it is sung all the way through. Musical theater, on the other hand has featured songs. However, most of its book is spoken. Recently there has been more and more cross over between opera and musical theater. They include Rent, Les Mis and The Phantom of the Opera. 

The Atlanta Opera Lucia di Lammermoor finale

Blurring Musical Vocal Boundaries Has a Romantic Precedent

The oratorio dates back to the 1500’s. It reached a climax under hand of Handel. The Romantic movement of the 19th century revived his ideals. Like Handel, with the Romantic composers, half were written in a Biblical or religious vein. The other half was secular or historical. There was only one difference: Handle’s historical oratorios were limited to either classical Greek or ancient. Handel examples include Hercules, Semele, “Alexander’s Feast”, or Alceste. Romantic oratorios had a broader scope. Instrumental works took on more significance. Here are a couple of examples:

  • Berlioz’s Romeo and Juliet is somewhere between a symphony and a cantata.
  •   The Damnation of FaustOp. 24 is a work for four solo voices, full seven-part chorus, large children’s chorus and orchestra[1] by the French composer Hector Berlioz. He called it a “légende dramatique” (dramatic legend). It was first performed at the Opéra-Comique in Paris on 6 December 1846. It has been seen as a symphony, oratorio or opera.

Operatic Broadway is Simply Following in this Precedent of Mixed Tradition

Octavian and Cleopatra: a 2 Act Opera in English – DSO Works

I, blogger David, have been the composer of three such works, My book-writer lyricist has been my wife Sharon Lesley Ohrenstein.  Check out the internal link above for some quite exciting live examples. Sharon plays Cleopatra.  Contact us on DSOworks@gmail.com if you are interested in our up and coming works. We need a new sound for the new times we are entering. This translates into meaningful income.

Lesley and Ohrenstein’s “Octavian & Cleopatra” – YouTube

The youtube example below sets up our Operatic Broadway show.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bhGHHXuBr8Q
Dec 12, 2007 – Uploaded by Rudder3218

“Octavian & Cleopatra” Imagine an operatic work that pours out incredible melodies, mesmerizes …

Schubert Contrasts Beethoven

Schubert Contrasts Beethoven as Freedom v. Structure

Schubert Contrasts Beethoven as Freedom v. Structure. Most agree that Beethoven was the link between the Romantic and the Classical periods of music. Schubert’s life overlaps Beethoven’s. Schubert life was much shorter. January 1797 – 19 November 1828), He was an Austrian composer. Schubert died at age 31. But he was extremely prolific during his lifetime. His output consists of:

Ludwig von Beethoven  was baptized 17 December 1770[1] – 26 March 1827. He outlived Schubert by some 26 years. Schubert was born when Beethoven was 27 years of age. However Franz Schubert picked up the Romantic ball of composition and pushed it further. Classical music most often had significant development sections in a sonata, or symphony.  Here the parts or pieces of a theme were developed to show off the composer’s ingenuity. Schubert’s themes resist “development. Most are complete in themselves. Alfred Einstein discusses also this topic in his Music in the Romantic Era.  To quote him about Schubert: ” His themes have felicity in themselves. They resist dissection: development.”

Schubert Contrasts Beethoven
Beethoven lit the torch of Romanticism. Schubert ran with it.

Beethoven Archives – DSO Works

To read more about my thoughts on Beethoven, click on this internal link above.

How Schubert Contrasts Beethoven with the “Development” of his Themes

With Beethoven, any “side-stepping” keeps the theme in mind. His “digressions” are parallel paths to the theme. Schubert, in contrast,  becomes involved in the mist of a beautiful melodic journey. Development is often not called for. To him it seems too intellectual.

Romanticism’s span was approximately from 1800 – 1850.   It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble. Spontaneity became a desirable characteristic (as in the musical impromptu). Some of Schubert’s great creativity is to be found in with his Impromptus.  In contrast to the Rationalism and Classicism of the Enlightenment, Romanticism revived medievalism[7] . Elements of art and narrative perceived as authentically medieval. This was an attempt to escape population growth, early urban sprawl, and industrialism.

Image result for Pictures of paintings from the Romantic era
A romantic painting of someone cutting loose.

We Need a Return to Romanticism

We need the return of beautiful song once more. “Composing” today is created by formula. Many songs of today use only three harmonies. The three harmonies always appear in the same order. Their melody is about as limited as their harmony to three tones.  Here is the point: When you feel constricted by difficult times, you need to “cut loose.” Singing or performing constricted music can make you feel even more hemmed-in. Our current composers need the style of the “beautiful melodic journey” of Schubert.

 

 

 

Ideal Cities and town squares are part of this wonderful book.

Ideal Cities Quoting Dimensions by Author Jan Gehl

Ideal Cities as per author Jan Gehl. The recorded concept of ideal cities goes back to Plato. The “ideal” nature of such a city may encompass the moralspiritual and juridical qualities of citizenship. Ways in which these are realized can include urban structures including buildings, street layout, etc. Ground plans of ideal cities are often based on grids.

The Ideal City by Fra Carnevale, c. between 1480-1484.

An ideal city is the concept of a plan for a city that has been conceived in accordance with the dictates of some “rational” or “moral” objective.

This blog takes this concept even further. It adds the dimension of ideal measures of key city spaces. Author Jan Gehl is referenced.  I, in turn, reference the 3 x 3 number square in this quest. Key measurements are found in feet of three foot yards on this number square. The 12 inch foot is basic.  It is of extreme antiquity. The Reverend John Michell specifies examples at the British Museum. They take the form of the cubic inch of gold. It was the standard unit of weight in Egypt, Greece and Babylon. Of course, a cube has 12 edges. Thus, 12 x 1″ = 12 inches or 1 foot. My own blogs are an attempt to bring back the ancient harmonious world order of a forgotten Golden Age. First, here is the star player in this quest. Please read my blogs about this number square. They are easy and free to access.

The ancient, traditional arrangement of the 3 x 3 number square.

Universal Egyptian Remen is Found Throughout the Cosmos

Rubinoff concert is shaping up

Riches Come from “Dance of the Russian Peasant”

Riches Come  from “Dance of the Russian Peasant”. Rags to riches refers to any situation in which a person rises from poverty to wealth.  In some cases from absolute obscurity to heights of fame. With this blog both wealth and fame happen. This is a common archetype in literature and popular culture. Examples are in the writings of Horatio Alger, Jr.

Rags to Riches is Exemplified by a Violinist!

The featured picture places the meaning of the title on a silver platter. The story you are about to read is touching. Anyone struggling, poor or victimized by discrimination can identify with it.

Riches came to Rubinoff and His Violin, They were partners.
Rubinoff’s posh Suite at the Leland House. We worked together on musical arrangements for years.

The Rags to Riches Story

A violinist reached an income level of  $500,000/year in the 1930’s. That was during the heighth of the Great Depression. His name was David Rubinoff. Dave’s childhood was dramatically poor. It was recorded by his wife, Dame Darlene Rubinoff. Her book is called, The Dance of the Russian Peasant. I, David Ohrenstein, was his arranger and accompanist for over 15 years. Currently guests hear my piano playing 6 nights weekly. This is on the isle of Boca Grande, Fl. It is on a newly rebuilt Steinway. Location is at the world renowned Gasparilla Inn. Dave Rubinoff dictated his entire book to wife, Dame Darlene. Since he spoke broken English, at best, she edited his words.

Image result for pictures of Rubinoff on DSOworks.com
A poor Russian as a youth, little David acquired riches and fame through his violin.

“Paderewski was Headmaster of the Warsaw conservatory. He later became premier of Poland. Professor Leopold Auer was headmaster of the violin department. He taught such greats as Heifetz and Zimbalist.

We had no time for play. Everything was work, study, practice, and practice some more. Professor Dressnor was working with me. He hit my fingers with his bow.”Wrong, wrong!” he said, loudly. I started to play the passage again and he hit my fingers.  “But I did not play it yet”, I said dejectedly.

“Never mind. It would have been wrong anyway!”, he said loudly. I vowed that for my graduation I would play something so difficult, that no one could play it but me. I filled it with difficult passages my professor would not be able to play.” As a result, Dave Rubinoff wrote “Dance of the Russian Peasant.” This personal fire stayed with Rubinoff throughout his life.

Best news of all. I will be honoring my mentor, Dave Rubinoff 30 some years after his passing away. This will be on June 2, 2018 at the new Ted Lewis Museum. It is in Circleville, Ohio. Included will be our arrangements. I will play them with famed violinist, Steven Greenman. The orchestral conductor will be maestro Joseph Rubin. Afterwards I will lecture about our association. To find the particulars, visit the Ted Lewis Museum on line. Do not miss this inspiring all-American event.

Rubinoff and his Violin – Dance of the Russian Peasant – YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h_wn9SfNdp4

 

Mar 28, 2008 – Uploaded by Rudder3218

Rubinoff in concert at the White House. This Violin solo by Rubinoff – Dance of the Russian Peasant is a …

 

 

 

 

 

Cycles Part Two and Lunar Phases

Cycles Part Two and How They Affect People

Cycles Part Two on How They Affect People. Since at least Neolithic times, builders of civilizations sought to counter the harmful effect cycles can have as they hit their peak. Basically they used a process that I call “transfer.” They transferred the effects of cyclic activity to a distinct physical plane. Often this took the form of a circle divided into four parts. There are many examples of how the Neolithic culture applied their knowledge of cycles. In this regard they were far more advanced than we are today in the 21st century. Here are a few classifications that pertain to business in the 21st century.

cycle time (plural cycle times)

  1. (operations) The total elapsed time to complete an operation or set of operations.
    Order cycle time can now be minutes from when the customer starts entering an order to when it is visible to the warehouse.
    Production cycle time is not as important as the time spent in transit.
    Design cycle time for an all-new state-of-the-art compressor is still years from go-ahead to readiness for manufacture.

    Cycles Part Two and Quadrpartite Division

Cycles Part Two
Neolithic Cultures Saw a Cyclic Fourfold Division of Time. They sought to control its effects through fourfold landscape work.

Also found in: ThesaurusMedicalLegalEncyclopedia.

quad·ri·par·tite (kwŏd′rə-pär′tīt′) adj.

File:Sun cross dotted.png
Quadripartite division of a circle was common in antiquity

Quadripartite Division of Time as an Ancient Tool

  1. The cycle is low. The spiral is unwound. Everything is relaxed.
  2. The cycle winds up. Things begin to tighten
  3. The cyclic peak is reached. That equates with maximum trouble and chaos.
  4. The cycle unwinds. Things go back to being relaxed.

Cycles part two continued: Newton was quite familiar with ancient Egyptian writings. His friend, editor and publisher, Edmond Halley, who, in his 1705 Synopsis of the Astronomy of Comets, used Newton’s new laws to calculate the gravitational effects of Jupiter and Saturn on cometary orbits.[22] This calculation enabled him to determine that the orbital elements of a second comet that had appeared in 1682. They were nearly the same as those of two comets that had appeared in 1531 (observed by Petrus Apianus) and 1607 (observed by Johannes Kepler).[22] Halley thus concluded that all three comets were the same object returning about every 76 years. The period actually varies between 74–79 years. 

Cycles are found from the vast dimensions of the Universe to the microscopic world of the atom. Of course they are also attached to the life processes on Earth. Here are some examples:

  • Galaxies rotate around their centers. The Milky Way takes 200 million years to complete a rotation.
  • The Sun rotates around its axis every 25 Earth days.
  • Comets have a regular elliptical orbit.
  • Meteor showers take place regularly on certain days of the year.
  • The Moon varies in an illumination cycle every 27 days.
  • The Moon produces high tide cycles every 12½ hours.

I will continue to blog on such topics until we can all initiate a new era of peace and plenty. I believe that is in the making. It is called: A Golden Age.

Lspn comet halley.jpg
Halley’s Comet on 8 March 1986