Where did the measure of 2.72 foot megalithic yard, re-discovered by Professor Alexander Thom of Oxford University in the 1960’s,  really come from?  Thousands of years ago, Plato called 272 the number of harmony. John Michell writes about the subject in his City of Revelation.  Thom found this unit at at 600 sites located in  England, Scotland, Wales and Brittany. In the 1900’s, Jay Hambridge discovered  that the megalithic yard was an extension of the Egyptian remen:  The 1.2165 foot remen x square root of 5 = 2.72 feet. Hambridge uncovered the source of numerous ancient measurements by multiplying the Egyptian remen by the square roots of 2,3, 4,5 etc.


I discovered that many older  measurements, including those that Hambridge uncovered are found in the 3 X 3 square pictured above. It was the cornerstone of ancient builders. In my blog on Genesis tunes to A-440, I talk about the hidden number codes. Please follow the numbers on the tick-tack-toe board above: By single digits the perimeter totals 40 as:  4 + 9 + 2 +7 + 6+1 + 8+ 3 = 40.  But overlapping double digits, the total becomes 440 as: 49 + 92 + 27 + 76 + 61 + 18 + 83 + 34 = 440 (we still tune to A-440). Overlapping the digits, three at the time, corner to corner, we have 2220 as: 492 + 276 + 618 + 834 = 2220. The formula for deriving the megalithic yard from this number square is: P1 (40) + P2(440) + P3 (2220)/(divided by) P3(2220)  times the square root of the central number,5. 


The 3 X 3 magic square can have some different number arrangements, as books on number squares illustrate. John Michell, states that the above diagram is the traditional way it is viewed, Now why is the traditional solution important? Because, other key megalithic measures and mathematical amazements are found when looking at the bottom row horizontally: As the numbers across the bottom are 816 or in reverse 618 we find:  (1) One megalithic rod = 81.6 inches (2) One megalithic inch = 0.816 inches. When these three figures are reversed as 618, magically, the Golden Section appears. Ancient sites around the globe  used the 1 to 1.618 ratio for construction. After they were constructed by the Golden Section, they were measured by megalithic units. This will be the subject of future blogs. Jericho was such a site.  .618 is  diminutive expression of the Golden section: 1/1.618…= o.618…  Finally the megalithic yard as 2.72 references another mathematical gem: the exponential factor of growth: 2.72 is a close approximation that expresses the limits by which systems can grow. I will save the appearance of pi for another blog. Thank you for your patience.

Two stars of David are a part of an ancient universal temple plan

Music and Temples


Music and Temples: David gave Solomon a musical blueprint to build a holy temple How did David come by it?  It goes back to Moses. He acquired it from former Egyptian rulers. Then Moses passed it on to the leaders of Israel. It illustrates how musical tones were connected to the arts and sciences by common number.  At the crux of the design are six circles that surrounded a central circle; all of equal diameter. The diameter of each of the 7 circles is 352. This number also  defines the old (pre-well tempered)  musical tone- “F” in vibrations per second of the diatonic scale.  Issac Asimov lists the vibrations per second of these tones in his book, On Physics.  Guy Murchie lists the same tones as having the same vibrations per second in his treatise:  The Music of the SpheresThe types of units by which temples were measured could vary from culture to culture. They could utilize Egyptian remens, Palestinian cubits, Roman paces, or even the English yard- but the numbers had to be the same as the musical tones. The picture of the plan with the digits came into my mind as I was hiking around Oquaga Lake. Here is what its looks like:


On the plan,(1) EG = FC = 440 which defines the musical tone “A”. (2) LK = FE = RQ = 352 which defines the musical tone “F”. (3) DG = DC which defines “C”. (4) DG = FC = 792 which defines the octave higher tone “G”.  This plan, steeped in music tones, was used by builders and masons, at one time, in order to keep order and harmony in the world. In my decades of study, I’ve researched measurements of holy sites. Major sites everywhere are built by musical tones. I believe this discovery could provide all with a uniting vision and purpose. This makes the study of music, and in my case, composing music and playing the piano, quite relevant.  Also relevant is my piano instruction for those who are genuinely interested in leaning to play the piano. We collectively need to put the muse back in music. Otherwise, we might just end up with the “ic” part.






Being a musician, I developed an aptitude for numbers. Parents should know that study after study concludes that whether playing an instrument or singing ; music greatly increases a child’s aptitude for mathematics. When music is practiced before school, it raises the  IQ as much as 10% for the entire school day. In its effect,  practicing music is like a multiple vitamin for the brain.  An example is Albert Einstein, arguably the smartest man ever, who prided himself on playing the violin.


Our music of equal temperament helped to create what’s called  a Circle of Fifths.  Every time you ascend five tones in  the first scale you can arrive at the new scale that hold the next key signature. After  twelve scales by fifths, you complete an entire cycle and go back to the beginning key. You could easily frame the  12 keys of the Circle of Fifths on the 12 regular pentagons that make up the dodecahedron (see picture below),  Not only the modern well-tempered scale; but the ancient diatonic scale was based on a series of ascending fifths with a final lower fifth from the starting tone. 5 solids that are regular: a numerical parallel.



Music and Math: One helps the other, and how this helped me:  I believe that because of my work with music, I was able to uncover a unique number code.  Its use was first discovered by  emperor Yu, a ruler of China  about 2,000 BC.   The  5 Platonic solids, pictured below, are totally patterned by code that I discovered.  The code is hidden in a 3 x 3 number square, which in China is called  Lo shu. The way to crack  the lo shu code is  found in Isaiah 45:2-3: “I will go before thee, and make the crooked places straight. I will break in pieces the gates of brass, and cut asunder the bars of iron. And I will give you the treasure of darkness and hidden riches of secret places, that thou mayest know that, I the Lord, which call thee by thy name, am the God of Israel.”

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Our Musical Circle of Fifths can be superimposed on the each of the 5 vertices of the 12 pentagons of the dodecahedron. As these are the only 5 possible regular polyhedrons that can exist, these solids define a unique system of balance. Our music based on the Circle of Fifths shares this  property with the dodecahedron and can therefore bring a sense of balance to us.


I believe that my years with music through formal education, private lessons and working with great concert artists,  helped me to develop the mathematical side of my thinking. I talk about the Lo Shu, pictured below, on my blog about the  The Mysteries of Music Unearthed by Tick-Tack-Toe. Incidentally, the Bible is pointed in the use of  scripture number  to reveal its preference for this ancient magic square: Not only is 45 the chapter number in which Isaiah’s reference occurs,  but 45 totals  the numbers in this number square (1 + 2+ 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 = 45). While  2 + 3 ( the two verses in chapter 45) whose numbers when added together = 5. I think that sharply defines of the number square.


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“E-660” in Feet Measured the Glastonbury Abbey

“E-660” in Feet Measured the Glastonbury Abbey- Turning the numbers of vibrations per second of the old diatonic musical scale into the numbers of linear measures is  one my themes. It demonstrates how builders in antiquity sought to construct by the beauty of musical tones, poetic though it be.  Most cannot grasp this concept. We are trained by birth to look for differences. The computer, to my knowledge, also does not grasp metaphors very well.  As the popularity of poetry has faded, so has metaphor.


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The Abbey blueprint was first conceived in the vessel of the fish (vesica piscis) of two overlapping circles each with a 660 foot diameter
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The length of the vesica is defined by BA and the width by PO. The Abbey was placed in the turquoise area of the vesica.



In a remote undocumented time, builders used the numbers of musical tones for construction. Consider: John  Michell, in his View Over Atlantis, explains how 660 was taken by builders to represent the diameter of the Earth.  It measures the number of feet in one furlong.  Furthermore, one 660 foot furlong equals 7.920 inches. On a inch to mile basis it closely replicates the average diameter of the Earth.   This gives the measure of the Earth a tonal or music point dimension. And so it was- in a former age of peace and plenty. The Abbey (image above) first had its dimensions sketched in the vessel of the fish (vesica piscis).  The vesica of Glastonbury’s blueprint is the turquoise oval part in the center to center overlapping circles. Each circle has a 660 foot diameter. Any vesicas ratio of length to width length to width is always the square root of three to one. Across many cultures it is considered sacred. It outlines the shape of a fish, so it is also a significant Christian symbol. Historically it has been used by most religions by the builders of sacred sights  throughout recorded history.


John Michell, in his works, describes how the Abbey was conceived as the English Jerusalem. Its design  was section off into 74 foot squares laid out in a 9 X 4 pattern. The church was placed on a section of this pattern  Musically, the complete patter reduces reduces to 3 x 2 which is the sound ratio of the two tones of  musical fifth. Michell describes how if a circle with radius 660 feet is struck from the center of the 74 foot system of squares, its circumference passes through the sacred abbey fish pond. Further down its marks Glastonbury’s Catholic church. In a future blog, I will relate how 660 refers directly to the five Platonic solids in a remarkable way.

Mysteries of Music Unearthed By Tick-Tack-Toe.

Mysteries of Music Unearthed By Tick-Tack-Toe. To understand the profound, look to the simple. Pairing by opposites is the way of nature. Understanding complexity is as simple as Tick-Tack-Toe.  Grappling with the profound by studying the complex is dead-ended. I believe that’s why Einstein never found the unified field theory of relativity. Children love to play tick-tack-toe. When numbers are set in this board, secret codes come and open the doors to mysteries of music- as well as many other formerly unsolvable problems.

Set the numbers 1 to 9 in this board as pictured so that any row of three numbers equals 15. There are other possible arrangements, but the totals of 15 must always be the same. When added vertically, horizontally or diagonally in a straight line; the total must always be 15. On Oquaga Lake, some 25 years ago, I had an epiphany. There was a bad drought that summer and we had to leave our residence at Bluestone Farm situated on Bluestone Mountain. Our well dried up.   As we were packing up to leave Bluestone Mountain, a spiritual presence told me to  erase the tic-tack-toe frame. Then keep the numbers in the same position.  With this simple act, I could then unlock the mysteries of  science and art.

Having pondered over the books of John Michell for years, I memorized his lists measures of the sacred places that  he wrote about. Suddenly it came together in a flash of lightning. I touched on this topic on my blog on Music and Measure: Both the A of the modern well-tempered scale and of the old diatonic scale, vibrate at 440 times per second. The old diatonic “E” vibrated at 660 times per second. Both of these numbers are prominent on the tick-tack-toe board. Please watch the above board as I define these numbers.

The numbers of the vertical and horizontal cross by tens each total 440: ( 95 + 15 =110) + ( 59 + 51 = 110) +(53 + 57= 110)+ (35 +75 = 110).  Thus, 4 X 110 =440. The X diagonals total 440 in the same manner (45 + 65 = 110) + (54 + 56 =110) +( 52 + 58 = 110) +( 85 + 35 = 110).  Now, working around the perimeter two numbers at the time either way, we again find 440 in two ways: Counterclockwise we have: 43 + 38 +81 +16 + 67 + 72 + 29 + 94 = 440.  Clockwise we have 49 + 92 + 27 + 76 + 61 + 18 + 83 + 34 = 440.

660, the vibrations per second for diatonic “E”, are found around the number square forwards and backwards as follows: Counterclockwise- 43 + 38 + 81 + 16 + 67 + 72 + 29 + 94 = 660.  Clockwise- 49 + 92 + 27 + 76 + 61 + 18 + 83 + 34 = 660. The basic musical fifth, A to E,  is found by vibrations per second in of all places, a Tick-Tack-Toe board. After more than 25 years of searching for the source of all our arts and sciences, I am convinced this grain of mustard seed is it. The Great Pyramid, also blogged about here, exists in great measure to define the myriads of ways that the numbers of this  grain of mustard seed work. It takes the 440 that is found in four ways in this grid and measures each side of its square base as 440 cubits of 1.718 feet.  I am certain that Tick-Tack-Toe will be found as the backbone of civilizations on other planets with advanced life.  Stay tuned for more blogs on the subject in the future. Hope you have enjoyed the mysteries of music unearthed by Tick-Tack-Toe.



Music and Math Share the Rule of 9’s


Music and math share the rule of 9’s.  I find this very appropriate because music and numbers also share in usage of the same side of the brain. Words, on the other hand, use other side of the brain.  I will first demonstrate the rule of 9’s by music. Then I will demonstrate it with numbers. Inversion means to reverse the order, be it  of numbers or the two tones of a musical interval sounding  at the same time.  A unison inverts to an octave as 1 + 8 = 9. The second inverts to the seventh as 2 + 7 = 9. The third inverts to a sixth as  3 + 6 = 9. The fourth inverts to a fifth as 4 + 5 = 9. Change in the quality ( major to minor intervals or diminished to augmented)) will be the subject of a future blog


Now let’s look at inverted numbers.  If someone is adding an entire column of numbers in a ledger, once in a while the digits in any one number might be mistakenly reversed.  For example, instead of writing 189, you write 198; or instead of writing 235, you write 532. This act is comparable to inverting or reversing musical tones. If what you expected the total to be, as opposed to what it is, differs by a multiple of nine, then you inverted or reversed the digits of the numbers in the manner that I have just demonstrated. Here is the proof: 198-189 = 9. With the second example, 532 – 235 = 297 When you divide 297 by 9, the quotient is 33. Let’s take a larger number: When you record 23,572 as 32,572 the difference is 9,000. That is also a multiple of nine.

In conclusion, since math and music are virtually twins, to study one without the other is like separating these twins, How sad! The study of mathematics must be complemented by the study of music.

Every child in school should be given the opportunity to learn music through piano lessons or musical programs at school.

The point I made above is amply demonstrated by Albert Einstein; a great mathematician who  played the violin. The fictional detective genius sleuth, Sherlock Holmes, also played the violin.  Arthur Conan Doyle realized the importance of music and how it is a part of superior intellect. One more word on the rule by 9’s. In the highest court of our land, the Supreme Court, we also have a rule by nine. The founding fathers of America were also brilliant.

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Albert Einstein is the prototype of the musical mathematician. He played the violin. In his writings he discusses how one the the best moments of his life was one he received a good review by a music critic for playing .

The 4 x 4 Magic Square and Music?

The 4 x 4 number square and music? The meaning of of number squares has degenerated to nothing more than a puzzle or a simple  curiosity. In antiquity the magic number square had a multitude of associations. They were of extreme importance. Ancient builders recognized 7 primary number squares. Each one was thought to invoke the power of one of the seven recognized planets. For example:  3 x 3 invoked Saturn.  5 x 5 called on Mars. The 4×4 magic square, pictured below, was said to invoke Jupiter. John Michell, in The View Over Atlantis, points out how the statue of Jupiter at Olympus was built by the numbers of this square.


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The wood carving above was done by Albrecht Durer in 1514. It is called Melancholia. The picture on the right is a blowup of a section of the same woodcarving of the angels wing against numbers one and fourteen. The angel is apparently depressed because she is overwhelmed by all her labors. The 4 x 4 square holds the cure for the angel’s melancholy mood. Gustav Holst, in his The Planets, refers to Jupiter as the bringer of Joviality. Don’t worry. Help is on the way for this angel!

Now, how can you invoke this number square through music and get rid of sadness and melancholy? King David was able to cure Saul’s melancholy with music:  If each square represents one measure, four measures (the top row) represents the smallest complete unit of musical form. Two phrases are often placed together in a “question-answer format”.  Hum the opening of Twinkle,Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star, how I wonder what you are? The first part is the question the second is the answer. Phrases are sometimes placed together to make a 16 bar musical double period. Dancing is often done to units 16 bar measures of music. Joining phrases in such a manner gives the listener or dancer a sense of symmetry and balance. That in turn brings happiness. Viva la music!


Our Music, Bodies, etc. Use the Same Numbers

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Our music, bodies, etc. use the same numbers. As Fibonacci  numbers develop by successive addition of numbers that are adjacent; man, music and even love, yes-love,  use the exact, same numbers.   When the larger number of the two in this series is divided by the adjacent smaller number; the ratio keeps getting closer to what is called the Golden Section or phi. This ratio never comes out evenly: It is 1.6180339… The Fibonacci numbers are named after an Italian mathematician.   Numbers that develop into this ratio, in order of size are: 1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21… The higher the numbers by successive addition,  the closer it comes to phi.

The Use of Phi in Music

The formula for the phi ratio is: square root of 5 + 1; whose total is then divided by two. The piano keyboard is set up by the Fibonacci series. We have two spacing of black keys. They are by 2’s and by 3’s for a total of 5. Taking C major as the prototype, from one “C” to the next is 8 tones on the white keys. Thus, from C to C’  in addition to the 1 octave we have, 2 black keys, then 3 black keys and 8 white keys. The total black and white keys are 13.


All tones have what’s called overtones that vibrate sympathetically with  the fundamental tone. The 1st overtone  is the octave of 8 notes. The second overtone is the 5th, Both overtones are Fibonacci numbers. Not co-incidentally, the Great Pyramid of Egypt uses the same numbers in its 5 to 8 ratio of its height to one length of the square base.


The factors of the Golden Section ( another name for phi) are 1,2 and 5 (as already described above). People have one torso, one head, two arms, two legs, five fingers on each hand and five toes on each foot. We are the mathematical manifestation of the factors of phi.   Most significantly, love ties the whole system together: The Hebraic verb for love (pronounced, Ahav) uses three Hebrew letters.  Spelled out in English they are: aleph, hei and beis. Aleph is also the Hebrew symbol for 1; hei is also the symbol for 5; and beis is also the symbol for 2. What is the lesson? Life and music are all about love.


Harmony’s Number


 Harmony’s Number is 272. My unpublished manuscript, entitled, The Sacred Engineers Philosophy, the Pinnacle of Thought in the Unified Culture of Ancient Builders, was placed on the etched stone triangle at the Mnajdra Temple on the Island of Malta. The treatise discusses the number codes that the ancient engineers used for building temples. These same codes defined the vibrations per second of the musical tones of the ancient diatonic scale. I merely rediscovered the codes that they used.

Harmony’s number is 272. What can this possibly mean?  In antiquity, measure and music shared a common bond. The scale in use by the ancient Greeks was called diatonic. They knew the vibrations per second of each tone (Refer to Issac Asimov’s On Physics for the list).  Middle “C” vibrated 264 times per second. “C”, and octave higher, vibrated twice as fast: 528 times per second.  “A” still vibrates in symphony orchestras today at 440/sec. “E” above middle “C” was 264 times per second, etc. Numbers are readily available.

In antiquity, harmony referred to a balance of forces that were able to co-exist in peace. Harmony, according to Webster,  is an agreement or an accord. In music Webster states that it is a simultaneous sounding of tones that are pleasing to the ear. When a pair is in accord, be it people or music, they are able to co-exist harmoniously. John Michell in The View Over Atlantis elaborates on how 272 was connected by gematria  (defined as the former unity  that letters and numbers shared). The example that Michell uses goes back to ancient Greece with Harmonia who was the wife of Cadmus. The gematria of her name in Greek equaled 272. Numbers, in antiquity, could represent words, things and forces. Many ancient languages did not have separate symbols for numbers. Letter doubled as numbers. You could therefore  total the numerical values of the letters in a single  word, phrase or even a lengthy sentence. Each had a sum. The writings of John Michell covers the subject amply.


Harmony’s number  is 272.  Question: In what possible way can 272 bind opposing forces as one? Answer: Numbers 5 and 6 were considered polar opposite numbers. Five was yin. Six was yang. The five pointed star was a symbol of man. The hexagon, with 6 sides, was connected to the cosmos and the inanimate. In the Medieval gardens and decorations the five strong petaled rose was thought of yin; while the six- petaled lily was yang (refer to John Michell in City of Revelation). Many crystalline forms, the snowflake, even the cells of a honeycomb are six sided…So how does 272 unite man and the cosmos through numbers 5 and 6? Answer:  272 results from basic arithmetic of numbers 5 (yin) and 6 (yang). As, 6 x 5/ 6 + 5 = 2.72727272… Or stated in another way, 30/11= 2.727272….


As harmony’s number in ancient Greece was 2.72; even older megalithic cultures all over the world used 2.72…. as it defined the 2.72 feet of the megalithic yard.  Its hidden existence was  discovered by professor Alexander Thom of Oxford  in the 1960’s  He found that it measured most of the ancient sites in England.  Among the sites that were built by the megalithic yard are (1 Karnak Temple in Egypt whose length of either side of the rectangular base was 440MY. (2) the placement of the Sphinx in relationship to the Great Pyramid which was 440 MY distant,  (3) the  perimeter around the foundation of Persepolis in Iran was a square that measured 4 x 440 MY. (4) Rhe rectangular lengths of Troy in Turkey (2 x 220MY) combine to equal 440 MY. (5) The Akapana of Tiahuanaco in Mexico had one length and one width of its rectangular foundation together span 440 MY.  “A” , at 440, exists in two systems: (1) the old diatonic note “A” above middle “C” and (2) the modern well tempered “A” of our current tuning system.   As far back as 3500 BC the megalithic yard is found on Malta at the Mnajdra Temple at the higher section of the North entrance.  A triangle is etched in this section. Gerald J. Formosa found its dimensions and most of the temples in Malta that were defined  by the MY. He wrote about it in, The  Megalithic Monuments of Malta. Yes, music married architecture. The minister was Mr. Megalithic Yard, and their child was called harmony!


A very significant use of 272 bonds Islam and Judaism. The three letter root of “Arab” in Hebrew is ayin (70), reisch (200), and  veis (2). Its gematria is 272. The word, Hebrew, uses the same letters, re-arranged as: ayin (70), beis (2),and reisch (200)= 272. In this manner, both cultures have an harmonic accord. Also, the two primary Hebrew names for God in the Torah equal 272 but in a hidden way.. Scholars have pyramided the letters of a word to come up with the hidden pyramided value.  Thus the Tetragrammaton becomes: yud (10)  +  yud, hei(15)  +  yud, hei,vav (21)  + the full name- yud, hei, vav, hei (26).  The total is 72.  Using the same technique for the other primary name, Elohim, the total is 200. Therefore, the sum of these two pyramided names also equals  272.  I can only conclude that if we allow it, the natural state of the Middle East and the world  is all about peace and harmony. One last 272 point. When you multiply the Hebraic factors of the pyramided names of the Lord (described above) as 72 X 200, you get 14, 400…….. 2.72  defines the number of feet in a megalithic yard, 14,400 defines the number of feet in the “megalithic mile” which is even found in China as a measure called the Pu.

Uniting Music and Measure

Uniting music and measure raises a basic question. How? I have briefly blogged about this in Stonehenge Was Built by Musical Tones.  I will be developing  a theme sporadically throughout my blogs which is:  How the numbers by which architecture was measured duplicated the numbers of musical tones of the ancient diatonic scale.  As one philosopher put it: Architecture is frozen music. The units of measure by which ancient buildings could be  measured  varied by the culture.  Numbers, however, were the same.   Units of measure could include the shorter (1.718′) or longer Egyptian cubits (1.728′). They could have used the Palestinian cubit (2.107′).  The megalithic yard (2.72′) was extremely popular. The Roman pace (2.433′) or even the 12 inch English foot were utilized.   In the realm of the old diatonic scale,  a number of authors document their numbers in terms of vibrations per second. Thus I was able to see how the numbers of measure and music happily correspond. Authors that document the old diatonic scale in terms of vibrations per second include Issac Asimov in On Physics and Guy Murchie in The Music of the Spheres.

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The Great Pyramid of Gizeh is the large pyramid on the left side.


A 175 to 176 ratio of measures were used by cultures across the face of antiquity. This is well documented in John Michell’s  scholarly treatise entitled Ancient Metrology. The ratio takes in consideration the diameter across the equatorial bulge (176)  and the polar diameter (175). Michell discusses how the northern latitude measure of the Egyptian foot was 1.152 feet (the 176 ratio) at fifty degrees latitude. While the southern measure was was 1.145 feet (175 ratio) at ten degrees latitude.


As I have already discussed in my blog about Stonehenge, diatonic “F” above middle “C”  on the piano vibrates at 352 times per second. The standard of measure in antiquity, as I’ve already stated,  is based on a 176 ratio to 175.  One hundred and seventy-six is one-half of 352. Musically, in terms of vibrations per second, it is exactly an octave lower than the 352-F. Now, if we take the shorter 175 ratio of measure of 1.152 feet; then the perimeter around the great Pyramid is 2.640 feet. Diatonic “C” vibrates 264 times per second.  This perimeter, in terms of this shorter Egyptian foot, is exactly ten times the number by which the old diatonic “C” vibrates.


Another diatonic musical tone is duplicated in measure at the Great Pyramid. When shorter Egyptian cubit of 1.718 feet is used to measure the perimeter around the Great Pyramid, then each side is 440 cubits. The note “A” vibrates to 440 times per second. This is the standard not only of the old diatonic scale, but also the well-tempered scale still in use. A-440 is the only tone that is being used from the ancient diatonic scale by musicians- at least in England and America. In this regard, an essential dimension of the Great Pyramid is alive and well; and is still being tuned to by at least some of our orchestras. Music and empire: No wonder King David was considered a musician first and was a king only later.