Plus one factor shared by Geometry and Math. This post applies to all of the prominent ancient number squares. For various reasons, they are also called *magic squares*. What characterizes these squares of numbers? In recreational mathematics and combinatorial design, a **magic square**^{[1]} is a {\displaystyle n\times n} square grid (where n is the number of cells on each side) filled with distinct positive integers in the range {\displaystyle 1,2,…,n^{2}}.

- Each cell contains a different integer.
- The sum of the integers in each row, column and diagonal is equal.
^{[2]}

### So Where is the Plus One Factor?

The plus one in number squares is one thing above and beyond obvious definition on the number square. Let’s look at the application in geometry first. The 3 by 3 number square is the smallest that can be constructed. It has 2 parallel lines that intersect two more parallel lines. Thus, 3 x 3 columns of vertical and horizontal numbers, are set on a 2 x 2 set of horizontal and vertical lines. Note: By custom, these parallel lines are not encased by a square. Surrounding these nine numbers by a square would then create 4 x 4 parallel lines. In a way, this hides the true nature of the number square in consideration. Number square perimeters should be left open ended as in the featured picture. I must confess, some of my earlier number square pictures are encased.

*Here is the mathematical plus one factor*: This number square contains the numbers 1 to 9. Any straight row of three totals 15. Opposite numbers total ten. Hence, the following sets of numbers total 10: 4 + 6; 3 + 7; 8 + 2; and 9 + 1. The plus one factor becomes the total of the opposite numbers- 10. Ten is above and beyond the nine. It is not even notated on the prime number square; being invisible, like the Deity. So how does this apply in religious antiquity?

### The 1st of the 10 Commandments is the Plus One Factor

The 10 Commandments are thus modeled on the 3 x 3 number square. The 1st commandment is actually not a commandment. It is a statement of the presence of the Deity who is above and beyond everything. He is invisible, like the number 10. Compare it to the “colel” in numbers. That’s why in the 10 Commandments it becomes a statement as opposed the apparent nature of the other nine numbers.

Ten Commandments |
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